Connection between Thyroid and Infertility

Connection between Thyroid and Infertility

Fertility is the ability of a couple to conceive and carry a child to term. The connection between your thyroid and infertility is a crucial and sometimes difficult aspect of conception.

Your thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped organ at the front of your neck that produces hormones that control key activities and regulate your body’s metabolism.

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Thyroid Disorders

Thyroid disorders are a collection of conditions that cause the thyroid gland to operate abnormally, resulting in the overproduction (hyperthyroidism) or underproduction (hypothyroidism) of thyroid hormones such as triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).

Your thyroid gland does not produce enough of key important hormones if you have hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormone deficiency can decrease fertility by interfering with the release of an egg from your ovary (ovulation).

Furthermore, certain of the underlying causes of hypothyroidism, such as certain autoimmune or pituitary illnesses, might make it difficult to conceive.

The autoimmune illness Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, which is more common in women, is the most common hypothyroid ailment. The most prevalent cause of hyperthyroidism is Graves’ disease, an autoimmune disorder.

Thyroid Health In Women

Having an underactive thyroid gland, or hypothyroidism has been linked to infertility in women in the past.

Hypothyroidism treatment is an important aspect of any endeavour to address infertility in women. If infertility persists after hypothyroidism has been addressed, more treatments may be required.

Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism can have a deleterious influence on fertility, both in terms of getting pregnant and carrying a pregnancy to term. Affiliation with autoimmune antibodies, whether or not you have hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, might affect your fertility.

Progesterone levels play a role in this. If a thyroid issue is uncontrolled, a patient may have difficulty conceiving since implantation is not possible. Because of inadequate implantation, you may experience an early miscarriage.

Progesterone deficiency can manifest itself in a variety of ways, including:

  • a shorter or longer menstrual cycle than usual
  • lighter or heavier bleeding than usual
  • Bleeding windows that are longer or shorter than usual for you

Thyroid Disorders Can Affect Men Too

Fertility is a problem that affects both men and women. Thyroid issues in men can have an impact on a couple’s ability to conceive. Thyroid dysfunction can affect the quality and motility of sperm, making it harder for them to access the egg for implantation.

Hypothyroidism And Fertility

Thyroid hormone deficiency can have the following effects on fertility:

  • Disruption of the menstrual cycle, making it more difficult to conceive.
  • Obstruction of an egg’s release from the ovaries
  • Increased risk of miscarriage
  • Increased risk of premature birth

Women are more likely to have hypothyroidism, which may typically be identified with a simple blood test for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Many women, particularly those with ill-defined, subclinical hypothyroidism, go misdiagnosed. Hypothyroidism can cause a variety of symptoms, including:

  • Heavy and frequent menstrual cycles
  • Fatigue
  • Muscle stiffness
  • Forgetfulness
  • Dry skin and hair
  • Weight gain
  • Cold intolerance


The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is the autoimmune disorder, Graves’ disease. Hyperthyroidism, which causes an overabundance of thyroid hormone, can have a negative impact on fertility by:

  • Interrupting the menstrual cycle
  • Reducing sperm count
  • Increasing the risk of miscarriage in the first trimester
  • Increasing the risk of premature birth

Because the medications might cross the placenta, patients with hyperthyroidism are usually kept on the lowest effective dose of their medication throughout pregnancy.

Even if your Graves’ illness is under control, it is crucial to discuss with your doctor if you have a history of the disease.

Autoimmunity, Inflammation, And Fertility

Even when TSH levels are within normal ranges, autoimmune disease can have a deleterious impact on fertility. Thyroid antibodies indicate an immune imbalance that can affect fertility in the following ways:

  • Making it harder to fertilise the egg
  • Making it difficult to implant the egg
  • Increasing the risk of miscarriage
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